May 15, 2015

Revolutionize, Perfect, Quintessential

In regards to PV-10, Moffitt Cancer has said over the last couple of years:

Speaking of cytokines...
Image and article source
Cytokines are the messengers of the immune system. Cytokines are substances, either proteins or glycoproteins, secreted by immune cells. They have autocrine and paracrine functions, so that they function locally or at a distance to enhance or suppress immunity. In cancer therapy, we generally use cytokines to enhance immunity. 
Cytokines regulate the innate immune system: natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. They also regulate the adaptive immune system, the T and B cell immune responses. In the immune system, cytokines function in cascades. Thus clinical trials of individual cytokines are rarely useful, since cytokines tend not to work individually. Some of the individual cytokines that have been tested and found ineffective for cancer treatment include interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), although it may be useful because it helps to mediate the severe toxicity of interleukin 2 (IL-2). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) certainly sounded promising, but in fact caused severe hypotension when used systemically. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) showed minimal anti-cancer activity and was toxic. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) had some activity against cancer cells, but turned out to be a growth factor for myeloma cells. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), used primarily in stem cell transplant to reconstitute the myeloid series, has been studied for melanoma with controversial results. 
Which cytokines are important for cancer? IL-2 and interferon-alfa 2b are two cytokines approved by the FDA for treatment of cancer. IL-2 has demonstrated activity against renal cell, melanoma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Interferon has activity in the same histologies but also in Kaposi's sarcoma, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and hairy cell leukemia. Overall, cytokines are substances that appear to have application in the treatment of hematologic malignancies or immunogenic tumors. {Underlined emphasis is mine}

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